Q: How many people lived in Boston in 1763?
A: Population was 15,631 in 1760. Boston was the third largest city in the colonies. The total white population of the providence of Massachusetts Bay in 1764 was 222,563 in 184 towns. In 1765, there were 5,779 people of African descent in Massachusetts, most slaves in urban centers like Boston or Salem. (In the early 1770s, there were 5,250 slaves in Massachusetts. For context, the urban population in the 13 colonies was 72,681, out of a total population of about 2.2 million. By 1790, in the first Federal census, the population of Massachusetts was 378,787.
Q: How many people lived in the 13 colonies in 1763?
A: In 1765, the total population was about 2.2 million people. In 1754, the total population had been about 1.5 million, a growth of 700,000 people in a decade. Most of the population was rural: the years after 1740 saw the growth of secondary population bases, like Gloucester, along with the expansion of urban centers like Boston, New York and Philadelphia.
Q: How old was Boston in 1763:
A: The city was 133 years old.
Q: How was the city of Boston governed in 1763?
A: Its government was based on town meetings overseen by a moderator. In 1763, the moderator was James Otis.
Q: Who was governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in 1763?
A: Sir Francis Bernard, First Baronet, appointed in late 1759. He had previously served as Governor of New Jersey. In Massachusetts, he tangled with the legislature and in particular with James Otis. Bernard left Boston, and Massachusetts, in August, 1769.
Q: Was slavery legal in pre-Revolutionary War Boston?
A: Yes. Slaves were present in Massachusetts at least as early as 1638, and slavery remained legal until a constitutional challenge in 1781.
Q: What form did slavery take in Boston, and in Massachusetts Bay, in 1763?
A: They were sources of unpaid labor in agriculture and trades as well as domestic servants. By the early 1770s, 5,250 slaves lived in Massachusetts, most in Boston or Salem. Occupations included domestic service, farming, skilled and unskilled labor, maritime trades, inn keeping, catering, and other small industries. People of African descent could not be served alcohol in public houses, and were not permitted on the streets after nine P.M. unless on their owner’s business.
Seven Years' War Timeline Basics
1754 - The French and Indian War erupts as a result of disputes over land in the Ohio River Valley. In May, George Washington leads a small group of American colonists to victory over the French, then builds Fort Necessity in the Ohio territory. In July, after being attacked by numerically superior French forces, Washington surrenders the fort and retreats.
1755 - In February, English General Edward Braddock arrives in Virginia with two regiments of English troops. Gen. Braddock assumes the post of commander in chief of all English forces in America. In April, Gen. Braddock and Lt. Col. George Washington set out with nearly 2000 men to battle the French in the Ohio territory. In July, a force of about 900 French and Indians defeat those English forces. Braddock is mortally wounded. Massachusetts Governor William Shirley then becomes the new commander in chief.
1756 - England declares war on France, as the French and Indian War in the colonies now spreads to Europe.
1757 - In June, William Pitt becomes England's Secretary of State and escalates the French and Indian War in the colonies by establishing a policy of unlimited warfare. In July, Benjamin Franklin begins a five year stay in London.
1758 - In July, a devastating defeat occurs for English forces at Lake George, New York, as nearly two thousand men are lost during a frontal attack against well entrenched French forces at Fort Ticonderoga. French losses are 377. In November, the French abandon Fort Duquesne in the Ohio territory. Settlers then rush into the territory to establish homes. Also in 1758, the first Indian reservation in America is founded, in New Jersey, on 3000 acres.
1759 - French Fort Niagara is captured by the English. Also in 1759, war erupts between Cherokee Indians and southern colonists.
1760 - The population of colonists in America reaches 1,500,000. In March, much of Boston is destroyed by a raging fire. In September, Quebec surrenders to the English. In October, George III becomes the new English King.
1762 - England declares war on Spain, which had been planning to ally itself with France and Austria. The British then successfully attack Spanish outposts in the West Indies and Cuba.
1763 - The French and Indian War, known in Europe as the Seven Year's War, ends with the Treaty of Paris. Under the treaty, France gives England all French territory east of the Mississippi River, except New Orleans. The Spanish give up east and west Florida to the English in return for Cuba.
1763 - In May, the Ottawa Native Americans under Chief Pontiac begin all-out warfare against the British west of Niagara, destroying several British forts and conducting a siege against the British at Detroit. In August, Pontiac's forces are defeated by the British near Pittsburgh. The siege of Detroit ends in November, but hostilities between the British and Chief Pontiac continue for several years.
1763 - The Proclamation of 1763, signed by King George III of England, prohibits any English settlement west of the Appalachian mountains and requires those already settled in those regions to return east in an attempt to ease tensions with Native Americans.